The Ultimate Guide to DIY Off-Grid Solar Systems – 02 – Solar Off-Grid System Components.

So here you can see an example of an
off-grid system. And as you can see the system consists of several components
and I'm gonna introduce each in this video. Let's start with batteries. Batteries store the solar energy. Solar batteries work by storing the DC
energy being produced by solar panels and giving it back to you when you need
it . There are different types of batteries used in solar systems and you
can choose them according to your specific requirements.

Here the batteries
are connected in series with each other to increase the voltage of the system. Each battery has a positive and negative terminal, and you can connect them in
parallel or series to change of voltage and the capacity of your off-grid system. This is the charge controller. It manages
the power going into the battery bank from your solar panels. It also ensures a
healthy charge profile for the batteries, and stops the power running backward to
the solar panels overnight. Typically charge controllers come in to two
technologies: the maximum power point tracking or MPPT and pulse width
modulation or PWM. And this controller is an example of an MPPT charge controller. this is the Inverter. Inverter converts the
direct current or DC output of the batteries into the alternating current
or AC, which enables you to power your AC equipments with the use of batteries. this is the monitoring device which will
be connected to the charge controller and is responsible to provide you with
information about your solar set such as voltage, current, power, temperature
and so on.

DC and AC breakers provide methods for us to stop current and
voltage being supplied to the equipment, so when we would like to remove or service
those items, or in the event of an overcurrent, they come really handy. solar panels and batteries are the DC
sources. Therefore DC switches are used for solar
panels and batteries. DC switch is connected to the inverters
output and protects the inverter and consumers in case of abnormal conditions. So using the AC switch, we have the
control over the AC output. Okay there are lots of connections here. Let's find
out how to wire the off-grid system. Two connections come out of the batteries. One from the positive terminal and the other from the negative terminal.

positive goes to the charges positive battery
terminal and bettery negative goes to the charges negative battery terminal. The
bus bar makes it possible to split the connections. This means that the positive
is connected to two places and the negative is also connected to two places. Then the negative connection once goes to the charger and inverter and the
positive goes to the charger and inverter. This is called the rail or din
rail which is a metal strip that is used for securely attaching electrical and
industrial control products such as circuit breakers or terminal blocks and
here we mounted our switches on it.

Ok I remove the cover here. here I have the PV positive and negative
terminals, battery positive and negative terminals, and DC loads positive and
negative terminals. Turning this DC switch on will connect the batteries to
the charge controller and will turn it on. As you can see the charge controller
is on and it's displaying some parameters on its LCD. turning the other DC switch on will connect the solar panels positive and negative terminals to the
charge controller.

Now I turn the inverter on and turning the AC switch on
will bring the power to the plug. So I plug an AC consumer like this drill and
it will let me use my AC equipment. in next videos we will talk about each
component in more details.

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