This episode of Science Scouting takes it to the next level In today's episode of Science Scouting, we'll be looking at something very شيء Sexy but before we start please make sure of you Subscribe to the channel by clicking the "Subscribe and Like" button below And also press the bell to be the first to be notified of our news Today's episodes we will discuss the next Solar panels generation at the triple bell coefficient by Daryl Chapman Calvin Fuller and Gerald Pearson invented silicon photovoltaic cells The year 1954 was the beginning of a new era That will last long after discovery and industrialization of silicon photovoltaic cells there has been a steady growth and Advancing the renewable energy movement The United States alone has installed 3.8 gigawatts of solar PV capacity In the third quarter of 2020, it will reach 88.9 gigawatts of total installed capacity Enough to power 16.4 million American homes In addition to the global market for solar PV systems Our estimate of $824.6 billion in 2020 is The revised size is expected to reach US$2.3 trillion by 2027.
Growing at a rate of 15.6 percent during the analysis period from 2020 to 2027 The market for solar PV systems in the United States is estimated at $223 billion 2020. And of course we can't forget China The world's second largest economy, China is expected to reach the expected level The market size is US$496.8 billion by 2027 It lags behind 19.5 percent over the analysis period from 2020 to 2027. Among other noteworthy geographic markets is Japan Canada and Canada are expected to grow by 12.3% each. and 14.2 percent, respectively, during the period from 2020 to 2027 Inside Germany it is expected to grow by about 13.3 percent Despite this great progress in discovering the Skype pair Articles have changed the rules of the game Skype pair integration It seems that the material in making photovoltaic cells miraculous happened You may be wondering how and why this is the case Sit back and let's explain what makes these cells so special First, what exactly is this material called perovskite And what is the structure of the speculum is one of the most common crystals Structures found on the planet are most structures of the sky Inside the Earth's mantle and found in abundance Perovskite makes up 93% of the mass of the lower mantle And 38% of the total mass of our planet Perovskite was first discovered when some samples were collected from The Ural Mountains in Russia found mineralogist Gustav Rose and Named after the mineral in 1839, it is very common to use the terms Perovskite and perovskite structure alternately However, the metal of the endoscope is composed of calcium titanium And oxygen takes the form of cari03 on the other hand the structure of the endoscope Refers to objects or substances that take shape abx-3 has the same crystal structure as the Skype pair The material we now have some understanding of So which pair of skates is the characteristic composition of perovskite The endoscope has unique characteristics that make it ideal for technology Applications for example is the only crystal Electrical iron structure not due to external magnetic مغناطيسي field but due to its innate crystalline structure Peroxides are one of the most versatile classes of substances Sharing the abx-3 structure as well as a pair of sky can display a wide range of Different properties actually developed by scientists An entire class of materials called perovskite But they share a similar dense crystal cube, similar to diamond structure because the positions a and b in ab3 The chassis can accommodate almost every component of the patrol The endoscope table contains the cation on the site A larger metal cation such as ca2 plus and a different common cation A The metal transition on the b site is a smaller metal cation such as ti4 In addition to the octahedral coordinate by Normally anions, most perovskite oxygen does not contain this cube The chassis is in its ground states but including the metal pair Sky because most pair of sky undergoes what is called octahedral rotation دوران Deformations around which b06 octahedron rotates One or more crystal axes, so how can endoscope structures help With the efficiency of solar panels, let's start with a quick overview What does the photovoltaic market look like today Solar technologies other than silicon are often categorized into Generations based on how advanced silicon crystalline solar cells are Fall within the first generation, which represents more than 85 percent of global photovoltaic market sales in 2011 It is currently achieving competencies ranging from 18 to 22 Standard Test Conditions for Second Generation Cells These are thin-film technologies that are often commercially available Such as cadmium telluride (CDTE) solar cells are the second most common Photovoltaic technology in the global market after crystalline silicon It currently represents five percent of the global market with record efficiency For the laboratory cdte solar cell it is 22.1 percent By first solar energy, other commercial thin-film technologies include hydrogenation Amorphous silicon and copper indium gallium dislenide Cells occupy approximately two percent The market share of each of SunPower today manufactures more than others Efficient panels on the market are the X series that boast huge ب 22.8 percent efficiency rating since collapse In the solar energy market, LG is expected to make a high High quality products of the neon 2 and neon r سلسلة series The series featuring units has exceeded 21 Efficiency But what exactly is efficiency The efficiency of solar panels solar panels is a measurement How much solar energy can a given panel convert into usable energy Electricity for example if the solar panels have 20 percent efficiency which means it is able to convert 20 percent of the sun's rays that strike you with electricity But within a few hours of operation, the efficiency will drop to 18 2018 High Performance Flexible Solar Cell Alta Devices which is claimed to have made a solar cell Record conversion efficiency of 29.1 percent1 With approved single-junction gallium arsenide device Fraunhofer laboratory in Germany, but in 2020 Oxford photoelectric endoscope The cells set a new world record for solar cells According to Dr.
Chris, chief technology officer at Oxford PV This pair of celestial solar silicon contains 29.52% Certified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado, USA Not only breaking the record of our company but breaking the performance record of 29.2 Percent of any solar cell material a lot of You may be interested in How a Pair of Celestial Solar Panels Works A pair of Skype solar cells belongs to a group called organic photovoltaic cells or This type of solar cell has an absorbent layer based on Organic semiconductors are usually either polymers or small molecules But before we move on to perioskite solar panels, I want to briefly explain The concept of organic photovoltaic system The organic photovoltaic system has five major functional steps number one Photon absorption followed by free charge generation Light with sufficiently high energy levels will be absorbed by osc Electrons are excited from the highest occupied molecular orbital or from homo to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital lumo to form an exciton if the energy of the absorbed light is greater than Band gap Electron moves to a higher level The energy level of lomo and decay down this process known as Second thermal transfer charge or diffusion From the exciton to the donor acceptor interface Once formed, the exciton diffuses through the osc .
Component to the donor acceptor interface where the offset between lumo مستويات levels will be Engine dissociation exciton and charge extraction number three in The interface through which the electron will transfer to the accepted material The hole will remain on the donor, these charge carriers Attracted and therefore will constitute a fee diversion Mention when the distance between the spouses increases the attraction Reduces the number of four charging carriers The charge carriers will then propagate to the appropriate electrodes For example holes in the anode and electrons to the cathode The number five charge carrier group in the electrodes that are charge carriers collected and used to do work abroad بعمل A cell circuit that produces a current pair of working sky solar cells efficiently in several somewhat different architectures Depending on the role of the endoscope material in the device Or the nature of the upper and lower pole there are four typical types of mesoscopic solar cells which are nip n mesoscopic p planar cpin planar and dpin mesoscopic however The traditional structure of intermediate suction was the first order of Periscope Photovoltaic Cells for Standard Mesoscope Structure Test The periscope solar cell is made of glass covered with a tco transparent conductive oxide like fto as compact layer anode of tio2 as a full-layer blocking layer of mesoporous tio2 as the electron transport layer or etl And scaffold a pair of sky light absorption layer A Full transfer htl layer and back electrode as cathode Gold or silver interface between tio2 and a pair Skype material is a critical factor in determining crystal growth perovskite and the effectiveness of charge separation in devices The absorbent layer of this type of solar cell contains a compound with A A pair of the most common Skype structure is organic lead metal Hybrid Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Maple 3 methylammonium lead iodide is a dipole semiconductor compound It can transfer both electrons and holes to corresponding collecting electrodes When sunlight falls on a plot of land, it is absorbed by the sky pair and the active layer excitons Electrons and holes are created as charge carriers Then, when the exciton dissociation occurs, the dissociation in The interface between the speculum layer and the charge transfer layer Charge separation in a pair of Skype can occur through two possible fundamentals Feedback Number One Photodynamic Injection Electrons in n-type semiconductors such as tio2 and 2 injection holes in p .-type hole Transfer of substances such as spyro ome-tid at the electron It is separated from the hole and injected into the electron The transfer of the etl layer migrates to its anode الموجود Most cases of fluorine-doped tin oxide fto glass simultaneously is a pinhole It is injected into the htl slot transport layer The most widely used material for the entire transport layer htl is a spiro ome tad polymer composition properties of this compound Including the appropriate glass transition temperature The possibility of ionization solubility and transparency in the visible range Spectra made this a convenient option for These applications then migrate to the cathode The metal usually has most of the silver layer as a cathode in a pair of CSCs It is prepared in a vacuum environment and is an expensive process Electrons and holes are collected by working electrodes and counter straight and transferred to the outer circle To produce current but in a pair of thin films from the solar sky This structure is just a flat layer of the endoscope sandwiched between two selective contacts after absorbing light Both charge generation as well as charge extraction Occur in perioskite layer so how scientists achieved 46 Efficiency and what is the technology behind it On December 1, 2014, a new world record was set for a multi-junction solar cell 46 percent efficiency developed with soybean technology and cea ledy France with the Fraunhofer Institute For ISE Germany solar systems, the world standard cell is a A quadrupedal cell, transforming each of its sub-cells Exactly a quarter of the incoming photons in the wavelength range Between 300 and 1750 nm to electricity When applied in the photoelectric capacitor, a very small cell with Fresno lens is used which concentrates sunlight on the multi-junction cell mj solar cells are multi pn متعددة solar cells Connectors are based on a selection of three v5 .
Composite semiconductors Materials such as indium aluminum gallium arsenide Phosphide etc. This group is recognized Special characteristics that produce a wide range of The power bandgap that can be used on a variety of electronic devices The structure of multi-junction solar cells consists of multiple Layers of mono-junction solar cells on top of each other Band gap of different materials form from top to bottom Low power light volume decreases does not have enough power for Excitation of electron-hole pairs from the upper layers But it can still produce current in the lower layers when it has no photon ال Enough energy to overcome the band gap at the pn junction It simply passes through the multi-junction solar cells It takes advantage of each substance and then absorbs it and transforms it into photons which has an energy greater than the bandgap of that layer And less than the band gap of the upper layer because these different bands can It absorbs its own range of wavelengths of light By the time the full spectrum of light has passed through the compound Material high energy absorption عالية For a standard silicon crystalline solar cell, the efficiency is about 25 For single crystal cells under laboratory test conditions On the other hand, it has been shown that multi-junction solar cells have 46% efficiency and infinite number of connections This number can theoretically be increased to 86 cent now we have a clear picture of Multi-junction cell structure then how much solar panels cost 2020 the easiest way to calculate the average The cost of solar panels is looking at their price and dollars per watt It is relatively consistent across the United States Solar panel costs for a medium-sized installation In the United States it usually ranges between eleven thousand and one hundred and forty-four dollars to fourteen thousand six hundred and ninety-six dollars after solar energy tax credits And the average watt rate for solar panels ranges between 2.51 To 3.31 in other words the cost of installing solar energy for your home or The work depends on how much electricity you want تريد To create a larger system will cost more because you will need to buy more Equipment and more labor will be required To nail it down in 2020, Tesla has updated its solar displays with the latest More efficient solar panel and lower prices with new prices in mind Tesla's mini system costs 2.44 cents per watt Average is ninety-five dollars per watt, and large and very large – one dollar دولار Ninety-three per watt and eighty-four dollars per watt Respectively, all of these prices are before the federal tax deduction which is It is currently at twenty-six percent and will drop to 22 percent in 2021 That's down from a high of 30 percent in the past few years It was a fun trip today to learn how solar panels work And its efficiency.
I hope you enjoyed it as much as we did Let us know your thoughts in the comments section regarding this unique What kind of solar panels would you like to know The engine of the future flight, stay tuned for the next video Forget to subscribe and hit the notification bell for that You are the first to be notified of our new episodes Thanks for watching and until next time don't stop learning.