[Instrumental music playing] So… Let's go and see how to install the solar panels. [Richard] The first thing: the solar panels must be oriented to the south. My solar panels are oriented to the west -but it's a problem of my building. [Richard] As you can see this is the first solar panel, with the first connection, then the second… -then the third… -and then the fourth in the far. [Richard] As you can see with these cables all the solar panels are connected in parallel because my installation of solar panels is of 12 volts. [Richard] And here the final cable of the solar panels that enters straight inside my house…
Here. [Richard] So… Here we are inside my house and this is the cable coming from the solar panels that goes straight to the solar controller/charger that is this one. [Richard] It's a STECA, it's of 30 Amperes. [Richard] This is the battery, is 12 Volts, 220 Amperes. [Richard] And this is the inverter of 2000 Watts. [Richard] So, now, let's go to explain how to install all this: -first thing you have to connect the solar control-charger to the battery. Remember: never, never connect the solar panels to the solar controller/charger -if the solar controller/charger is not yet connected to the battery, otherwise you will burn the solar controller/charger. So, remember: first you connect the solar controller/charger to the battery. To make this, the first thing you have to do -is to connect first the red cable to the solar controller/charger, and then the black cable to the solar controller/charger. Then, we go to the battery… -first you have to connect the red cable coming from the solar controller/charger that is this one small and then you connect the black cable coming from the solar controller/charger to the battery, that is this one, small, in black.
[Richard] As this battery is very powerful, because it's 220 Amperes, -and, normally, all the batteries used in the solar panel installations are very big and very powerful, before connecting any cable to the battery remember to blow here and to blow here. Because, normally, oxygen comes out of these holes -and here, and oxygen is a very explosive gas. So, before connecting the cables, always blow here, and here. [Richard] This why: because so, in this way, you will avoid to make sparks. [Richard] Once you have connected the solar controller/charger -to the battery, and remember: first you blow, then you connect the red cable coming from the solar controller/charger and then the black cable coming from the solar controller/charger we go to connect the inverter. To connect the inverter, same system: first you blow, then you connect first the red cable, this big one coming from the inverter, then you connect the black cable, this one big, coming from the inverter.
[Richard] Only after having connected all this, -and so: first the solar controller/charger to the battery and then the inverter to the battery, wait for the night to connect the solar panels to the solar controller/charger. Why this? Because during the day it's dangerous. [Richard] So, during the night, and only during the night, -we go to connect the solar panels to the solar controller/charger. Remember: first connect the red cable, and then connect the black cable. Once you have connceted the solar panels, you will have this display. [Richard] Now we are in daylight -and I explain you what this does it mean: this means that the solar panels are giving electricity to the battery, and 13.9 is the voltage that the solar panels are giving to the battery that is here. [Richard] This display means that the solar panels are giving 1 Ampere per hour. [Richard] This next display means that the solar panels are charging the battery -with 1 Ampere per hour. [Richard] This next display means that till now the solar panels -have given me 3.3 kilo-Amperes. [Richard] This display means that I have used till now 66 Amperes. Let's distinguish between Ampere, Watt and Volt: Ampere is the capacity of the battery, Watt is the power, and Volt is the voltage of the battery.
So, when I say that I have used 66 Amperes We have to multiply 66 Amperes per 12 Volts of the battery and it appears that I have used 792 Watts. [Richard] So, for example, this battery is 12 Volts and 220 Amperes, -it means that if we multiply, it means that this battery contains 2640 Watts or better 2.6 kilowatts. [Richard] Just remember a very important thing: -if you make a solar panels installation, the first thing that you have to buy is a voltmeter. [Richard] Now… Let's go to check what is happening… -the solar panels are giving to the battery 1.1 Amperes per hour. [Richard] And now let's check what is happening with the battery… -first remember: first the red and then the black…
-So… actually we have 12.91 Volts: it means that the battery is not yet fully charged, but it's good. When you disconnect, always first remember: -first the black and then the red. [Richard] Why we have 12.91 Volts in the battery -and here we have 14 Volts: -because this one, 14.1 Volts, is the charging electric current. [Richard] Now let's go to see the difference: -the sun has started to illuminate the solar panels and let's go to check: this means that the solar panels are producing 6.7 Amperes. The solar panels are giving to the battery 6.6 Amperes. Consider that, normally, the sun gives between 10 and 15 Amperes per hour, -so, depending on what you need, and how much electricity do you need, you can add more solar panels. [Richard] So, let's arrive now to the most important part: -when the battery is fully charged, we can turn on the inverter. The inverter: we can turn on it from here.
And then, here, there is the AC output: AC 220-240 Volts, that is normal electricity, that is here, and then goes here. And here we can connect everything we want. Of course keeping in mind that this inverter is of 2000 Watts so this is the limit: we can connect the maximum power of 2000 Watts. Of course I never connect something that needs 2000 Watts because otherwise the battery will go down in few moments. Normally I connect to this small system just computer, laptop, television and nothing else, otherwise the battery will go down. [Richard] This is the type of installation that I have made for my solar panels. For example: positive… positive… like this: in parallel, -we have 12 Volt, but we have 20 Amperes, because 12 Volts… 12 Volts… 10 Amperes and 10 Amperes… The sum is 20 Amperes. Because each solar panel gives 10 Amperes. Of course my solar panels are 4, but they are not of 10 Amperes: they are like 5 or 6 Amperes, and so it gives me the maximum of 20 Amperes.
[Richard] Instead, if we want a more powerful system, -with solar panels, we can do like this: -in series: 12 Volt… 5 Amperes… 12 Volt… 5 Amperes… but we connect here the negative… here… positive… negative… and here upstairs… positive. So we have the final out: -negative here… and positive here… -and in this case we have the same: 5 Amperes… 5 Amperes… -here the result will be 5 Amperes… but the sum for voltage… So: 12 Volts… 12 Volts… The sum: we have 24 Volts. [Richard] With a system of solar panels at 12 Volts, we can have more power with batteries: -so…
We can do like this: one battery… 12 Volts… 200 Amperes, another battery: 12 Volts… 200 Amperes… and the most important thing: -the batteries must be of the same type and of the same company. Just the 2 batteries must be the same. So, in this case, in parallel, we have: negative here… negative here… -and positive here connected in parallel: positive here, we have always 12 Volts, but in this case we have 400 Amperes. This in parallel, like could be my installation. Well: I have only one battery of 12 Volts of 220 Amperes, but if we want more capacity of electricity, we can do like this, and it's a good system. [Richard] In a system of 24 Volts, so with a solar panels installation of 24 Volts, we have to make like this: -Two batteries, always the same type, same voltage and same capacity of Amperes, and same company of the batteries, just the same batteries, we can do like this: negative, then, in series: positive, negative and then positive.
The result, you see, 12 Volts… 12 Volts… 200 Amperes… 200 Amperes… -In this case will be the result 24 Volts, the sum, but still 200 Amperes. [Richard] We can also make this system, for example: -a system of solar panels in series and in parallel like you see: 12 Volts… 10 Amperes… -here: 12 Volts… 10 Amperes… -and so just the same for the remaining panels. And so, we have: positive… positive… positive here, -then: negative-positive, negative-positive, negative-positive and then, downstairs: negative… negative… and negative. So: the result will be negative here and positive here -(the way-out upstairs) -and so we will have: 24 Volts and 30 Amperes, -24 Volts because it's in series and 30 Amperes because it's a system series-parallel.
[Richard] Of course if we make a system of series and parallel, also the batteries will be in the same configuration. So we have: 12 Volts 200 Amperes… 12 Volts 200 Amperes… -12 Volts 200 Amperes and 12 Volts 200 Amperes, so we put like this: negative… negative… here, then: positive-negative… positive-negative… and then positive-positive. So, the result will be: 24 Volts with 400 Amperes. [Richard] This too is a good system: here we have 24 Volts 500 Amperes battery bank. So we have: battery 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. -12 Volts 100 Amperes connected in this system, positive-negative, positive-negative and here all positive and downstairs all negative will result in 24 Volts and 500 battery bank Amperes. [Richard] In any case I would like to advise you -never to exceed the 48 Volts in a system of solar panels because the continuous current, or direct current, is dangerous: -you can see, for example, how big are the cables of the inverter. Anyway the solar panels are very good: you will have free electricity. I earn normally 1 kilowatt per day, so it's 30 kilowatts per month with a system of 12 Volts, and that is very good.